Teaching Quality

Teaching Quality

High Impact Philanthropy to Improve Teaching Quality: Focus on High-Need Secondary Students

View the full report of High Impact Philanthropy to Improve Teaching Quality

Download the Executive Summary.

For donors seeking to improve student outcomes, the critical question is: How can my funds improve teaching quality?

Why this, why now?

Over the past twenty years, despite increases in perpupil spending, dropout rates remain alarmingly high, achievement gaps persist, and U.S. students rank behind their peers in many other countries.

Researchers, educators, and funders across the political spectrum increasingly agree that change is needed, and that teachers are the single most crucial lever for accomplishing that change.

Video: Katherina Rosqueta and Kate Barrett discuss "High Impact Philanthropy to Improve Teaching Quality"

What’s in this report?

This report outlines high impact philanthropic models based on our analysis of available evidence from academic research, expert advice, and practitioner information:

Part 1: Improving individual teachers’ skills discusses models that:

  • Improve training for teacher candidates before they are fully employed, through apprenticeships in high-need schools where theory is linked to real-world practice.
  • Provide support to new teachers, through inschool mentoring focused on improving the skills of novice teachers.
  • Invest in teachers’ ongoing professional development, through programs that integrate district and school goals with the learning needs of individual teachers.

Part 2: Creating an environment for great teaching discusses models that:

  • Improve principal leadership in high-need schools, through more selective principal recruitment, increased hands-on preparation, and on-the-job support especially during the critical first few years.
  • Reform schools by removing existing constraints to good teaching. These whole-school models foster high expectations for teacher and student performance and redesign the school to achieve them. Introducing more rigorous curricula and extending learning time for students and teachers are examples of reform strategies.

In each of these two sections, donors will find:

  • Analysis of the current situation.
  • Descriptions of what to look for to identify high impact models.
  • Models in Practice that provide details of how nonprofits are implementing these models, including estimates of the impact and cost of each model. These estimates were derived from our team’s analysis of available data.
  • Additional resources to identify other organizations implementing similar models.

Part 3: What donors should know about the broader policy environment provides:

  • Guidance about how policy affects a donor’s investments.
  • A discussion of hot topics in education policy.
  • Tips and resources for those who wish to influence policy change directly.
  • Examples of impact at the district level, in district turnaround profiles.

In Parts 1 and 2, our analysis of available evidence found no differences among the high impact models that were meaningful enough to warrant a ranking based on impact and cost. In fact, these solutions are mutually reinforcing: investments in one area enable impact in another. As a result, donors who invest in a solution where other effective strategies are already being implemented will likely see the greatest impact. Additionally, just as some business climates are more favorable for certain investments, some policy environments are more favorable for certain philanthropic efforts.

As with all of our work, we have vetted the content of this report with experts and practitioners in the field, individual philanthropists, and advisors to ensure that our guidance is both smart and actionable. It represents the best advice we can offer at this time. We welcome continued input and are exploring ways to update our material to incorporate new information and new developments. To receive notices of updates to this report, please contact impact@sp2.upenn.edu.

Click here for a PDF copy of the original blueprint that was released in the spring, which includes a brief explanation of why improving teaching quality is so critical and an analysis of some of the key challenges.
 

UPDATES

April 09 2010

Drop-outs

Source: Center for Labor Market. (2009, May 5). Left behind in America: The nation’s dropout crisis. A report by the Center for Labor Market studies at Northeaster University in Boston and the alternative schools network in Chicago. Retrieved January 11, 2010, from http://www.clms.neu.edu/publication/documents/CLMS_2009_Dropout_Report.pdf


Additional Resources

Education Equality Project. (2010). High School Dropout Rate. Retrieved January 28, 2010, from

http://www.edequality.com/fast_facts/entry/drop_out_rate/

The Broad Prize for Urban Education. (n.d.). The education crisis: Statistics. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.broadprize.org/crisis/stats.html

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April 09 2010

Achievement Gaps

International achievement gaps:  

  • American students rank 25th in math and 21st in science compared to students in 30 industrialized countries.
  • America’s top math students rank 25th out of 30 countries when compared with top students elsewhere in the world.
  • By the end of 8th grade, U.S. students are two years behind in the math being studied by peers in other countries

Source: The Broad Prize for Urban Education. (n.d.). The education crisis: Statistics. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.broadprize.org/crisis/stats.html 

 

Racial/ethnic achievement gaps:

  • By 4th grade, African-American and Latino students are, on average, nearly three academic years behind their white peers
  • 89% of Latino and 86% of African-American middle and high school students read below grade level
  • As of 2004, 31% of white students required college remediation compared with 42% of African-Americans, 41% of Latinos, and 41% of Native-Americans.
  • Barely half of African-American and Latino students graduate from high school, with Latinos graduating at 55%, African-Americans at 51%, and their white counterparts at 76%
  • 18% of all college-ready high school graduates are African-American or Latino.

Source: Education Equality Project. (2010). What is the achievement gap? Fact. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.edequality.org/what_we_stand_for/achievement_gap

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April 09 2010

Limited opportunities for individuals

  • 44% of dropouts under age 24 are jobless, and the unemployment rate of high school dropouts older than 25 is more than three times that of college graduates
  • The poverty rate for families headed by dropouts is more than twice that of families headed by high school graduates
  • Over a lifetime, dropouts earn $260,000 less than high school graduates
  • The health of an 18-year-old high school dropout is similar to that of a more educated person over two decades older

Source: The Broad Prize for Urban Education. (n.d.). The education crisis: Statistics. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.broadprize.org/crisis/stats.html

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April 09 2010

Threat to our economy

McKinsey & Company. (2009, April). The economic impact of the achievement gap in America’s schools. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.mckinsey.com/App_Media/Images/Page_Images/Offices/

SocialSector/PDF/achievement_gap_report.pdf

The Broad Prize for Urban Education. (n.d.). The education crisis: Statistics. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.broadprize.org/crisis/stats.html

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April 09 2010

Threat to our society

Baum, S., & Ma, J. (2007). Education pays: The benefits of higher educations for individuals and society.  Washington, DC: College Board. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/trends/ed_pays_2007.pdf

Lochner, L. J., & Moretti, E. (2001, November). The effect of education on crime: Evidence from prison inmates, arrests, and self-reports.  National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper 8605. Cambridge, MA. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.nber.org/papers/w8605.pdf?new_window=1

Putnam, R. D. (2001). Civic disengagement in contemporary America. Government and Opposition, 36(2), 135-156. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/119017013/PDFSTART

The Broad Prize for Urban Education. (n.d.). The education crisis: Statistics. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.broadprize.org/crisis/stats.html

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April 09 2010

Threat to our national security

Information gathered from:

Investment in America Forum, November 12-13 2009, West Point

http://www.conference-board.org/events/iaf/

Additional Resource:

Wallace, W. S. Commanding General. (2008, October).  An imminent and menacing threat to national security. TRADOC Information Pamphlet. U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command.

http://www.tradoc.army.mil/PAO/TNSarchives/June%202008/060208-1.html

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April 09 2010

Importance of Teaching Quality

Note: For some sources, subscription or library access is required to view full-text.

Aaronson, D., Barrow, L., & Sander, W. (2007). Teachers and student achievement in the Chicago public high schools. Journal of Labor Economics, 25 (1), 95-135.  (Abstract is available at http://ideas.repec.org/p/fip/fedhwp/wp-02-28.html)

Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8(1), 1-44. Retrieved August 11, 2008, from http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/392/515

Gordon, R., Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2006). Identifying effective teachers using performance on the job. Washington: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2006/

04education_gordon/200604hamilton_1.pdf

Jordan, H. R., Mendro, R. L., & Weerasinghe, D. (1997, July). Teacher effects on longitudinal student achievement: A report on research in progress. A Preliminary report on research on teacher effectiveness presented at the CREATE Annual Meeting, July 1997, Indianapolis IN. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from http://www.dallasisd.org/eval/research/articles/Jordan-Teacher-Effects-on-Longitudinal-Student-Achievement-1997.pdf 

Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L.V. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3), 237-257. Retrieved January 26, 2010 from: http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/uploads/002/834/127%20-%20Nye%20B%20%20Hedges%20L%20%20V%20%20%20Konstantopoulos

%20S%20%20(2004).pdf

Paone, J. J. (2008). Guide to teacher quality for local education leaders: A tool for school board members, teacher leaders, superintendents, school personnel administrators and others with an interest in education. Retrieved December 8, 2008, from http://www.qualityteaching.org/Documents/guide_to_teacher_quality_8-18-08.pdf.

Rivkin, S.G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. E. (2005, March). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417-458. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from http://www.econ.ucsb.edu/~jon/Econ230C/HanushekRivkin.pdf

Rockoff, J. E. (2004, May). The impact of individual teachers on student achievement: Evidence from panel data. American Economic Review, 94 (2), 247-252. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://129.3.20.41/eps/pe/papers/0304/0304002.pdf

Sanders, W., & Rivers, J. C. (1996, November). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from http://www.mccsc.edu/~curriculum/cumulative%20and%20residual%20

effects%20of%20teachers.pdf

Shen, J., Mansberger, N. B., & Yang, H. (2004). Teacher quality and students placed at risk: Results from the baccalaureate and beyond longitudinal study, 1993-97. Educating students placed at risk. Educational Horizons, 82(3), 226-235.  (Abstract is available at http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/

detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ684778&ERICExtSearch

_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ684778)

Wright, S. P., Horn, S. P., & Sanders, W. L. (1997). Teacher and classroom context effects on student achievement: Implications for teacher evaluation. Journal of Personal Evaluation in Education, 11, 57-67. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.sas.com/govedu/edu/teacher_eval.pdf

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April 09 2010

Teaching Quality (Our team’s working definition)

“A quality teacher is one who has a positive effect on student learning and development through a combination of content mastery, command of a broad set of pedagogic skills, and communications/interpersonal skills. Quality teachers are life-long learners in their subject areas, teach with commitment, and are reflective upon their teaching practice. They transfer knowledge of their subject matter and the learning process through good communication, diagnostic skills, understanding of different learning styles and cultural influences, knowledge about child development, and the ability to marshal a broad array of techniques to meet student needs. They set high expectations and support students in achieving them. They establish an environment conducive to learning, and leverage available resources outside as well as inside the classroom.”

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April 09 2010

No overall teacher shortage

Education Policy Studies Division, Center for Best Practices, National Governors Association. (2000, January 25). Teacher supply and demand: Is there a shortage? Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.nga.org/cda/files/000125TEACHERS.pdf

Ingersoll, R. M. (2003, September). Is there really a teacher shortage? A research report. Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy. Retrieved January 13, 2010, from http://depts.washington.edu/ctpmail/PDFs/Shortage-RI-09-2003.pdf

The National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. (2002, August 20-22). Unraveling the “teacher shortage” problem: Teacher retention is the key. A symposium of The National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future and NCTAF State Partners. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from ERIC database (ED 475057).  http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/

recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_

SearchValue_0=ED475057&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_

0=no&accno=ED475057. Also available at: http://www.ncsu.edu/mentorjunction/text_files/teacher_

retentionsymposium.pdf

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April 09 2010

Growth in math and science teachers outpacing student growth

Source: Ingersoll, R., & Perda, D. (2009).  The mathematics and science teacher shortage: Fact and myth. The Consortium for Policy Research in Education. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from
http://www.cpre.org/images/stories/cpre_pdfs/

math%20science%20shortage%20paper%20march%

202009%20final.pdf

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April 09 2010

Majority of turnover is pre-retirement

Source: Ingersoll, R., & Perda, D. (2009).  The mathematics and science teacher shortage: Fact and myth. Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania.
http://www.cpre.org/images/stories/cpre_pdfs/math%20science%20

shortage%20paper%20march%202009%20final.pdf


Additional Resources

Ingersoll, R. M. (2003, September). Is there really a teacher shortage? A research report. Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy. Retrieved January 13, 2010, from http://depts.washington.edu/ctpmail/PDFs/Shortage-RI-09-2003.pdf

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April 09 2010

Highest need students being taught by less effective/qualified teachers

Note: For some sources, subscription or library access is required to view full-text.

Barr, J. M. (2004). Teacher location choice and the distribution of quality: Evidence from New York City. Retrieved August 13, 2008, from http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~econnwk/workingpapers/2004-006.pdf.

DeAngelis, K. J., & White, B. R. (2006). The distribution and impact of teacher quality in Illinois. Retrieved August 13, 2008, from http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/BW_AEFA_March_2006.pdf.

Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. E., & Rivkin, S. G. (2004). Why public schools lose teachers. Journal of Human Resources, 39, 326-354. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://jhr.uwpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/XXXIX/2/326

Henke, R. R., Choy, S. P., Chen, X., Geis, S., & Alt, M. N. (1997). America's teachers: Profile of a profession, 1993–94. NCES 97-460. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved August 13, 2008, from: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs97/97460.pdf.

Peske, H.G., & Haycock, K. (2006, June). Teaching inequality: How poor and minority students are shortchanged on teacher quality: A report and recommendations by the education trust. Washington D.C.  Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/

content_storage_01/0000019b/80/27/fa/aa.pdf

Presley, J. B., White, B. R., & Gong, Y. (2005). Examining the distribution and impact of teacher quality in Illinois. Illinois Education Research Council Policy Research Report: IERC 2005-2. Retrieved August 13, 2008, from http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/Teacher%20Quality

%20IERC%202005-2.pdf.

Sanders, W., & Rivers, J. C. (1996, November). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center. Retrieved January 25, 2010, from http://www.mccsc.edu/~curriculum/cumulative%20and%20residual%20

effects%20of%20teachers.pdf

White, B. R., Presley, J. B., & DeAngelis, K. J. (2008, June). Leveling up: Narrowing the teacher academic capital gap in Illinois. Illinois Education Research Council 2008-1 Policy Brief. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/IERC2008-1PB.pdf

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April 09 2010

Individual teacher skills and enabling environment as mutually reinforcing

Note: For some sources, subscription or library access is required to view full-text.

Allensworth, E., Ponisciak, S., & Mazzeo, C. (2009, June). The schools teachers leave: Teacher mobility in Chicago public schools.  Consortium on Chicago School Research. Urban Education Institute at The University of Chicago. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://ccsr.uchicago.edu/publications/CCSR_Teacher_Mobility.pdf

Berry, B., Rasberry, M., & Williams, A. (2008). Recruiting and retaining quality teachers for high-needs schools: Insights from NBCT summits and other policy initiatives.  Center for Teaching Quality. National Strategy Forum: Supporting & Staffing High-Needs Schools. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www.nea.org/assets/docs/mf_nationalstrategyforumreport.pdf

Jackson, C. K., & Bruegmann, E. (2009, July). Teaching students and teaching each other: The importance of peer learning for teachers. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 1(4), 85–108. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1012&

context=c_kirabo_jackson

Leana, C.R., & Pil, F. K. (2006, May-June).  Social capital and organizational performance: Evidence from urban public schools. Organization Science, 17(3), 353-366. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://orgsci.journal.informs.org/cgi/reprint/17/3/353

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April 09 2010

Teacher U

Organization website: http://www.teacheru.org/

Carey, K. (2009, December 13). 'Teacher U': A New Model in Employer-Led Higher Education. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved February 17, 2010, from

http://chronicle.com/article/Teacher-U-A-New-Model-in/49442

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April 09 2010

New Leaders for New Schools (NLNS)

Organization website: http://www.nlns.org

Aportela, A., & Goetz, M. (2008, September). Strategic Management of Human Capital: New Leaders for New Schools. Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE). Retrieved February 17, 2010, from http://www.smhc-cpre.org/download/42/.

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April 09 2010

The Teacher Advancement Program (TAP)

The Teacher Advancement Program. (2009). TAP: The system for teacher and student advancement. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from http://www.tapsystem.org/

The Teaching Commission. (2006). Teaching at risk: Progress and potholes. The Final Report. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from http://www.nctq.org/nctq/images/ttc_teachingatrisk.pdf (Profile of TAP can be found on page 33).

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April 09 2010

The New Teacher Project

The New Teacher Project. (2010). The new teacher project. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from http://www.tntp.org/

The Teaching Commission. (2006). Teaching at risk: Progress and potholes. The Final Report. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from  http://www.nctq.org/nctq/images/ttc_teachingatrisk.pdf (Profile of TNTP can be found on page 53).

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April 08 2010

Benwood Initiative

Silva, E. (2008, April). The Benwood plan: A lesson in comprehensive teacher reform.  Educator Sector Reports. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from http://www.educationsector.org/usr_doc/TheBenwoodPlan.pdf

Tennessee State Collaborative on Reforming Education. (2009). Promising practices: Benwood Initiative. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from http://www.tennesseescore.org/index.cfm?Page=BenwoodInitiative

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March 20 2010

Brooklyn Generation School

Generation Schools. (2009). An award-winning new model for urban public schools. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from http://www.generationschools.org/

Silva, E. (2009, October). Teachers at work: Improving teacher quality through school design.  Educator Sector Reports. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from http://www.educationsector.org/usr_doc/Teachers_at_Work.pdf

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March 19 2010

Increase Teacher Retention

Factors affecting teacher retention

Source: Ingersoll, R., & Perda, D. (2009).  The mathematics and science teacher shortage: Fact and myth. The Consortium for Policy Research in Education. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from
http://www.cpre.org/images/stories/cpre_pdfs/math%20science%20

shortage%20paper%20march%202009%20final.pdf


Additional Resources

Allensworth, E., Ponisciak, S., & Mazzeo, C. (2009, June). The schools teachers leave: Teacher mobility in Chicago public schools.  Consortium on Chicago School Research. Urban Education Institute at The University of Chicago. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from  http://ccsr.uchicago.edu/publications/CCSR_Teacher_Mobility.pdf

Futernick, K. (2007).  A possible dream: Retaining California teachers so all students learn.  The Center for Teaching Quality.  Sacramento: The California State University.   Retrieved January 27, 2010, from http://www.calstate.edu/teacherquality/documents/possible_dream.pdf

Ingersoll, R.M. (2004). Why do high-poverty schools have difficulty staffing their classrooms with qualified teachers? Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from http://www.americanprogress.org/kf/ingersoll-final.pdf

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